Glossary

adnate: (of gills) connected to the stem by whole depth of gill, e.g. Stropharia aeruginosa;
   
adnexed: (of gills) connected to the stem by part of the depth of the gill;
   
adpressed: closely flattened onto surface;
   
agaric: general term for a fungus with gills;
   
appendiculate: fringed with remains of the veil, e.g. Lacrymaria velutina;
   
appressed: closely flattened onto surface;
   
basidia: club-shaped cells on which spores are produced in Basidiomycetes;
   
Basidiomycetes: a major and very diverse group of fungi, including gill fungi, boletes, polypores, clavarias, jelly fungi;
   
basidiospore: reproductive cell of the Basidiomycetes;
   
bulb: abrupt swelling at stem base;
   
bulbous: swollen into a bulb, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus;
   
campanulate: bell-shaped, e.g. Conocybe lactea;
   
capillitium: mass of sterile threadlike fibres among the spores in the Gasteromycetes which may aid spore dispersal;
   
capitate: with a round head;
   
cartilaginous: firm but flexible, as opposed to granular;
   
cheilocystidia: cystidia on the gill edge;
   
chlamydospore: a thick-walled, non-deciduous spore;
   
chrysocystidia: cystidia with granular contents which turn yellowish in alkali solutions;
   
clamp connection: a hyphal outgrowth connecting the two adjoining cells resulting from a cell division bypassing the dividing cell wall and apparently involved in the movement of nuclei;
   
clavate: club-like, e.g. Clitocybe clavipes;
   
coralloid: much-branched, coral-like;
   
cortina: (adjective cortinate) weblike covering running between the stem and cap edge enclosing the gills, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus;
   
cortinal zone: feint remnant of cortina on stem;
   
crescentric: crescent-like in form;
   
cuticle: the surface tissue layer of the cap or stalk;
   
cystidiole: a sterile cell protruding beyond the spore-bearing surface;
   
cystidium: (plural cystidia) a sterile cell, variable in shape, occurring between basidia in the sporebearing surface, or in other parts of the fruit body;
   
decurrent tooth: (of gill) where only the narrow end portion of the gill runs down the stem;
   
decurrent: (of gills) running down the stem, e.g. Clitocybe infundibuliformis;
   
dendroid: tree-like;
   
dermatocystidia: cystidia on the cap surface;
   
dextrinoid: turning reddish-brown with iodine solutions such as Melzer’s;
   
dichotomously: (branched) branching repeatedly in two;
   
dimitic: having two kinds of hyphae;
   
eccentric: (of stem) off centre, not centred in the cap;
   
emarginate: (of gills) see sinuate;
   
fibril: a small fibre;
   
fibrillose: covered with small fibres;
   
filiform: thread-like;
   
fimbriate: fringed;
   
flexuose, flexuous: undulating;
   
floccose: cottony, covered with cottony tufts;
   
fugacious: short-lived, fleeting;
   
fusiform: spindle-shaped, narrowing at both ends;
   
fusoid: somewhat spindle-shaped;
   
Gasteromycetes:

 

Characterized by the presence of Basidia; a large, diverse group within the Basidiomycetes characterised by the basidiospores maturing within the fruit body; includes puff-balls, earth stars, stinkhorns and birds-nest fungi;

   
germ-pore:  a differentiated area in a spore wall which may give rise to a germination tube;
   
gleba: fleshy mycelial tissue which contains the spore-bearing cavities present in asteromycetes;
   
granulate: covered with tiny particles;
   
hymenium:  spore-bearing surface;
   
hypha (plural hyphae) a single filament, the basic unit forming the fungus (adjective hyphal);
   
immarginate: without a distinct edge;
   
infundibuliform: funnel-shaped;
   
innate: inseparable, bedded in;
   
intercalary: between two cells;
   
lageniform: shaped like a narrow-necked flask;
   
lanceolate: elongate and tapering towards both ends;
   
latex: a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of Lactarius species when cut or broken;
   
marginate: (bulb) having a well-defined edge, e.g. Cortinarius amoenolens;
   
milk: a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of Lactarius species when cut or broken;
   
mycelium: (plural mycelia) a vegetative stage of a fungus comprising a thread-like to felt-like mass;
   
palmate: having lobes radiating from a central point, like fingers on a hand;
   
papillate: having a small, nipple-like protuberance;
   
paraphyses: sterile hyphal filaments interspersed between the asci;
   
partial veil: see veil;
   
pellicle: a detachable skin-like cuticle;
   
peridioles: pea-shaped structures containing the spores;
   
perithecia: flask-shaped spore producing chambers found in the Pyrenomycetes group of Ascomycetes;
   
pleurocystidia: cystidia on gill sides;
   
pore: (of polypores) the mouth of a tube;
   
pruinose: having a flour-like dusting;
   
punctate: minutely dotted or pitted;
   
pyriform: pear-shaped;
   
recurved: bent back;
   
reflexed: turned sharply back or up;
   
resupinate: lying flat on the substrate, with the spore-producing layer outwards;
   
reticulum: a network of raised ridges found on surface of stem or spores of some mushrooms’ rhizoid root-like structure;
   
rhizoid: root-like structure;
   
rhizomorph: cord-like structure comprising a mass of hyphae;
   
ring zone: feint mark where ring has been;
   
ring: remains of partial veil, only present in some Agarics (see partial veil);
   
saccate: bag-like;
   
sclerotium: (plural sclerotia) a firm, rounded mass of hyphae, often giving rise to a fruit body;
   
scurfy: surface covered with tiny flakes or scales;
   
septate: divided by cell walls;
   
sessile: without a stem;
   
sinuate: (of gills) = emarginated notched just before joining the stem, e.g. Hebeloma crustuliniforme;
   
spinulose: finely spiny;
   
spore print:  deposit of spores falling from cap-placed gills or pores downwards on a sheet of paper or glass;
   
spore: general term for the reproductive unit of a fungus, usually consisting of a single cell which may germinate to produce a hypha from which a new mycelium arises (see ascospore, basidiospore);
   
sporulating: producing spores;
   
squamous, squamulose: having small scales;
   
squamule: a small scale;
   
stellate: star-like;
   
striate: with fine lines;
   
sulcate: grooved;
   
tuberculate: with small wart-like nodules;
   
tubes: spore-producing layer in certain fungi, e.g. Boletus pinicola;
   
umbo: a central hump on a cap like a shield boss;
   
umbonate: having an umbo;
   
utriform: bag or bladder-like;
   
veil:

 

Protective tissue enclosing the developing fruit body. Universal veil encloses the whole developing fruit body; partial veil (of agarics and certain boletes) joins the edge of the cap to the stem enclosing the developing spore-producing surface and, in some, generally later forming the ring or cortina (adjective velar);

   
ventricose:    inflated or swollen;
   
vermiform: worm-like;
   
verrucose: with small rounded warts;
   
vesicle: small bladder-like sac (adjective vesicular);
   
vesiculose: formed of vesicles;
   
vinaceous: wine-coloured;
   
volva: Cup-like bag enclosing the stem base in some agarics, the remains of the universal veil;