allantoid: (spore shape) sausage or bean shaped (elongated & curved; 
adnate: (of gills) connected to the stem by whole depth of gill, e.g. Stropharia aeruginosa;
adnexed: (of gills) connected to the stem by part of the depth of the gill;
adpressed: closely flattened onto surface;
agaric: general term for a fungus with gills;
appendiculate: fringed with remains of the veil, e.g. Lacrymaria velutina;
appressed: closely flattened onto surface;
basidia: club-shaped cells on which spores are produced in Basidiomycetes;
Basidiomycetes: a major and very diverse group of fungi, including gill fungi, boletes, polypores, clavarias, jelly fungi;
basidiospore: reproductive cell of the Basidiomycetes;
bulb: abrupt swelling at stem base;
bulbous: swollen into a bulb, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus;
campanulate: bell-shaped, e.g. Conocybe lactea;
capillitium: mass of sterile threadlike fibres among the spores in the Gasteromycetes which may aid spore dispersal;
capitate: with a round head;
cartilaginous: firm but flexible, as opposed to granular;
cheilocystidia: cystidia on the gill edge;
chlamydospore: a thick-walled, non-deciduous spore;
chrysocystidia: cystidia with granular contents which turn yellowish in alkali solutions;
clamp connection: a hyphal outgrowth connecting the two adjoining cells resulting from a cell division bypassing the dividing cell wall and apparently involved in the movement of nuclei;
clavate: club-like, e.g. Clitocybe clavipes;
concolorous: being of the same colour;
conidia; conidium (pl) refers to the asexual, non-motile spores of some fungal species. Sometimes it is called mitospores because they are generated through a process called mitosis (when the chromosomes are separated to two nuclei);
coralloid: much-branched, coral-like;
cortina: (adjective cortinate) weblike covering running between the stem and cap edge enclosing the gills, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus;
cortinal zone: feint remnant of cortina on stem;
crescentric: crescent-like in form;
cuticle: the surface tissue layer of the cap or stalk;
cystidiole: a sterile cell protruding beyond the spore-bearing surface;
cystidium: (plural cystidia) a sterile cell, variable in shape, occurring between basidia in the sporebearing surface, or in other parts of the fruit body;
daedaleoid: labyrinthoid. The term is originated of the name of the former genus: Daedalea;
decurrent tooth: (of gill) where only the narrow end portion of the gill runs down the stem;
decurrent: (of gills) running down the stem, e.g. Clitocybe infundibuliformis;
dendroid: tree-like;
dermatocystidia: cystidia on the cap surface;
dextrinoid: turning reddish-brown with iodine solutions such as Melzer’s;
dichotomously: (branched) branching repeatedly in two;
dimitic: having two kinds of hyphae;
eccentric: (of stem) off centre, not centred in the cap;
ellipsoid: oval shaped;
emarginate: (of gills) see sinuate;
fibril: a small fibre;
fibrillose: covered with small fibres;
filiform: thread-like;
fimbriate: fringed;
flexuose, flexuous: undulating;
floccose: cottony, covered with cottony tufts;
floccule: a small, loosely aggregated bit of material (e.g., on the stem of Leccinum species);
fugacious: short-lived, fleeting;
fusiform: spindle-shaped, narrowing at both ends;
fusoid: somewhat spindle-shaped;


Characterized by the presence of Basidia; a large, diverse group within the Basidiomycetes characterised by the basidiospores maturing within the fruit body; includes puff-balls, earth stars, stinkhorns and birds-nest fungi;

germ-pore:  a differentiated area in a spore wall which may give rise to a germination tube;
glabrous: (describing a surface) bald;
gleba: fleshy mycelial tissue which contains the spore-bearing cavities present in asteromycetes;
granulate: covered with tiny particles;
guttation: secreting sticky droplets without any sort of cell damage; 
guttule: small oil like drop inside a fungal spore (visible under microscopy)
hyaline: clear or colourless and refers to spores without any colour if observed under a microscope;
hygrophanous: translucent in appearance when wet, paler and more opaque when dry;
hymenium:  spore-bearing surface;
hypha (plural hyphae) a single filament, the basic unit forming the fungus (adjective hyphal);
immarginate: without a distinct edge;
infundibuliform: funnel-shaped;
innate: inseparable, bedded in;
intercalary: between two cells;
lageniform: shaped like a narrow-necked flask;
lanceolate: elongate and tapering towards both ends;
latex: a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of Lactarius species when cut or broken;
marginate: (bulb) having a well-defined edge, e.g. Cortinarius amoenolens;
milk: a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of Lactarius species when cut or broken;
mycelium: (plural mycelia) a vegetative stage of a fungus comprising a thread-like to felt-like mass;
palmate: having lobes radiating from a central point, like fingers on a hand;
papillate: having a small, nipple-like protuberance;
paraphyses: sterile hyphal filaments interspersed between the asci;
partial veil: see veil;
pellicle: a detachable skin-like cuticle;
peridioles: pea-shaped structures containing the spores;
perithecia: flask-shaped spore producing chambers found in the Pyrenomycetes group of Ascomycetes;
pleurocystidia: cystidia on gill sides;
pore: (of polypores) the mouth of a tube;
pruinose: having a flour-like dusting;
punctate: minutely dotted or pitted;
pyriform: pear-shaped;
recurved: bent back;
reflexed: turned sharply back or up;
resupinate: lying flat on the substrate, with the spore-producing layer outwards;
reticulum: a network of raised ridges found on surface of stem or spores of some mushrooms’ rhizoid root-like structure;
rhizoid: root-like structure;
rhizomorph: cord-like structure comprising a mass of hyphae;
ring zone: feint mark where ring has been;
ring: remains of partial veil, only present in some Agarics (see partial veil);
saccate: bag-like;
saprotrophic: decomposer; the organism feeds on already dead organic materials;
sclerotium: (plural sclerotia) a firm, rounded mass of hyphae, often giving rise to a fruit body;
scurfy: surface covered with tiny flakes or scales;
septate: divided by cell walls;
sessile: without a stem;
sinuate: (of gills) = emarginated notched just before joining the stem, e.g. Hebeloma crustuliniforme;
spinulose: finely spiny;
spore print:  deposit of spores falling from cap-placed gills or pores downwards on a sheet of paper or glass;
spore: general term for the reproductive unit of a fungus, usually consisting of a single cell which may germinate to produce a hypha from which a new mycelium arises (see ascospore, basidiospore);
sporulating: producing spores;
squamous, squamulose: having small scales;
squamule: a small scale;
stellate: star-like;
striate: with fine lines;
stroma; stromata pl.

a cushion-like mass of solid mycelium, containing numerous asci;

subfusiform: almost or imperfectly spindle shaped;
subglobose: almost or imperfectly spherical;
subrufescens: almost or imperfectly reddish;
substrate: refers to a natural environment on which the organism lives;
sulcate: grooved;
tomentose: covered with densely matted woolly hairs
tuberculate: with small wart-like nodules;
tubes: spore-producing layer in certain fungi, e.g. Boletus pinicola;
umbo: a central hump on a cap like a shield boss;
umbonate: having an umbo;
utriform: bag or bladder-like;


Protective tissue enclosing the developing fruit body. Universal veil encloses the whole developing fruit body; partial veil (of agarics and certain boletes) joins the edge of the cap to the stem enclosing the developing spore-producing surface and, in some, generally later forming the ring or cortina (adjective velar);

ventricose:    inflated or swollen;
vermiform: worm-like;
verrucose: with small rounded warts;
vesicle: small bladder-like sac (adjective vesicular);
vesiculose: formed of vesicles;
vinaceous: wine-coloured;
volva: Cup-like bag enclosing the stem base in some agarics, the remains of the universal veil;