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Glossary
 

adnate:   (of gills) connected to the stem by whole depth of gill, e.g. Stropharia aeruginosa;
 
adnexed:   (of gills) connected to the stem by part of the depth of the gill;
 
adpressed:   closely flattened onto surface;
 
agaric:   general term for a fungus with gills;
 
appendiculate:   fringed with remains of the veil, e.g. Lacrymaria velutina;
 
appressed:   closely flattened onto surface;
 
basidia:   club-shaped cells on which spores are produced in Basidiomycetes;
 
Basidiomycetes:   a major and very diverse group of fungi, including gill fungi, boletes, polypores, clavarias, jelly fungi; and

Gasteromycetes: characterized by the presence of Basidia;
 
basidiospore:   reproductive cell of the Basidiomycetes;
 
bulb:   abrupt swelling at stem base;
 
bulbous:   swollen into a bulb, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus;
 
campanulate:   bell-shaped, e.g. Conocybe lactea;
 
capillitium:   mass of sterile threadlike fibres among the spores in the Gasteromycetes which may aid spore dispersal;
 
capitate:   with a round head;
 
cartilaginous:   firm but flexible, as opposed to granular;
 
cheilocystidia:   cystidia on the gill edge;
 
chlamydospore:   a thick-walled, non-deciduous spore;
 
chrysocystidia:   cystidia with granular contents which turn yellowish in alkali solutions;
 
clamp connection:   a hyphal outgrowth connecting the two adjoining cells resulting from a cell division bypassing the dividing cell wall and apparently involved in the movement of nuclei;
 
clavate:   club-like, e.g. Clitocybe clavipes;
 
coralloid:   much-branched, coral-like;
 
cortina:   (adjective cortinate) weblike covering running between the stem and cap edge enclosing the gills, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus;
 
cortinal zone:   feint remnant of cortina on stem;
 
crescentric:   crescent-like in form;
 
cuticle:   the surface tissue layer of the cap or stalk;
 
cystidiole:   a sterile cell protruding beyond the spore-bearing surface;
 
cystidium:   (plural cystidia) a sterile cell, variable in shape, occurring between basidia in the sporebearing surface, or in other parts of the fruit body;
 
decurrent tooth:   (of gill) where only the narrow end portion of the gill runs down the stem;
 
decurrent:   (of gills) running down the stem, e.g. Clitocybe infundibuliformis;
 
dendroid:   tree-like;
 
dermatocystidia:   cystidia on the cap surface;
 
dextrinoid:   turning reddish-brown with iodine solutions such as Melzer’s;
 
dichotomously:   (branched) branching repeatedly in two;
 
dimitic:   having two kinds of hyphae;
 
eccentric:   (of stem) off centre, not centred in the cap;
 
emarginate:   (of gills) see sinuate;
 
fibril:   a small fibre;
 
fibrillose:   covered with small fibres;
 
filiform:   thread-like;
 
fimbriate:   fringed;
 
flexuose, flexuous:   undulating;
 
floccose:   cottony, covered with cottony tufts;
 
fugacious:   short-lived, fleeting;
 
fusiform:   spindle-shaped, narrowing at both ends;
 
fusoid:   somewhat spindle-shaped;
 
Gasteromycetes:   a large, diverse group within the Basidiomycetes characterised by the basidiospores maturing within the fruit body; includes puff-balls, earth stars, stinkhorns and birds-nest fungi;
 
germ-pore:   a differentiated area in a spore wall which may give rise to a germination tube;
 
gleba:   fleshy mycelial tissue which contains the spore-bearing cavities present in asteromycetes;
 
granulate:   covered with tiny particles;
 
hymenium:   spore-bearing surface;
 
hypha:   (plural hyphae) a single filament, the basic unit forming the fungus (adjective hyphal);
 
immarginate:   without a distinct edge;
 
infundibuliform:   funnel-shaped;
 
innate:   inseparable, bedded in;
 
intercalary:   between two cells;
 
lageniform:   shaped like a narrow-necked flask;
 
lanceolate:   elongate and tapering towards both ends;

latex:   a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of lactarius species when cut or broken;
 
marginate:   (bulb) having a well-defined edge, e.g. Cortinarius amoenolens;
 
milk:   a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of Lactarius species when cut or broken;
 
mycelium:   (plural mycelia) a vegetative stage of a fungus comprising a thread-like to felt-like mass;
 
palmate:   having lobes radiating from a central point, like fingers on a hand;
 
papillate:   having a small, nipple-like protuberance;
 
paraphyses:   sterile hyphal filaments interspersed between the asci;
 
partial veil:   see veil;
 
pellicle:   a detachable skin-like cuticle;
 
peridioles:   pea-shaped structures containing the spores;
 
perithecia:   flask-shaped spore producing chambers found in the Pyrenomycetes group of Ascomycetes;
 
pleurocystidia:   cystidia on gill sides;
 
pore:   (of polypores) the mouth of a tube;
 
pruinose:   having a flour-like dusting;
 
punctate:   minutely dotted or pitted;
 
pyriform:   pear-shaped;
 
recurved:   bent back;
 
reflexed:   turned sharply back or up;
 
resupinate:   lying flat on the substrate, with the spore-producing layer outwards;
 
reticulum:   a network of raised ridges found on surface of stem or spores of some mushrooms' rhizoid root-like structure;
 
rhizoid:   root-like structure;
 
rhizomorph:   cord-like structure comprising a mass of hyphae;
 
ring zone:   feint mark where ring has been;
 
ring:   remains of partial veil, only present in some Agarics (see partial veil);
 
saccate:   bag-like;
 
sclerotium:   (plural sclerotia) a firm, rounded mass of hyphae, often giving rise to a fruit body;
 
scurfy:   surface covered with tiny flakes or scales;
 
septate:   divided by cell walls;
 
sessile:   without a stem;
 
sinuate:   (of gills) = emarginated notched just before joining the stem, e.g. Hebeloma crustuliniforme;
 
spinulose:   finely spiny;
 
spore print:   deposit of spores falling from cap-placed gills or pores downwards on a sheet of paper or glass;
 
spore:   general term for the reproductive unit of a fungus, usually consisting of a single cell which may germinate to produce a hypha from which a new mycelium arises (see ascospore, basidiospore);
 
sporulating:   producing spores;
 
squamous, squamulose:   having small scales;
 
squamule:   a small scale;
 
stellate:   star-like;
 
striate:   with fine lines;
 
sulcate:   grooved;
 
tuberculate:   with small wart-like nodules;
 
tubes:   spore-producing layer in certain fungi, e.g. Boletus pinicola;
 
umbo:   a central hump on a cap like a shield boss;
 
umbonate:   having an umbo;
 
utriform:   bag or bladder-like;
 
veil:   protective tissue enclosing the developing fruit body. Universal veil encloses the whole developing fruit body; partial veil (of agarics and certain boletes) joins the edge of the cap to the stem enclosing the developing spore-producing surface and, in some, generally later forming the ring or cortina (adjective velar);
 
ventricose:   inflated or swollen;
 
vermiform:   worm-like;
 
verrucose:   with small rounded warts;
 
vesicle:   small bladder-like sac (adjective vesicular);
 
vesiculose:   formed of vesicles;
 
vinaceous:   wine-coloured;
 
volva:   cup-like bag enclosing the stem base in some agarics, the remains of the universal veil;